Spicilegium Style Sheet

For matters not discussed here, authors should consult the 16th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style (Chicago, 2010). It should be noted that in a departure from Chicago style, page numbers should normally be preceded by “p.” or “pp.”


A footnote number should be placed at the end of a sentence or at the end of a clause, following any punctuation including a closing paranthesis, except for the dash, which it precedes. But for a parenthetical phrase within a sentence, it may be appropriate to place the footnote number before the closing parenthesis. A single footnote can contain more than one citation. The citations documenting a single fact in the text are generally separated by semicolons, with the last reference followed by a period.

Italics and quotation marks:

Isolated expressions and words in non-English languages should be italicized, but a non-English phrase taken from a specific source should be in roman type within double quotation marks (“ ”). Single quotation marks (‘ ’) are reserved for quotations within quotations. Block quotations should be typed double-spaced and be indented as extracts without quotation marks.

Page and line numbers:

Page numbers should always be preceded by “p.” or “pp.” unless they follow a volume number (as in the case of a journal article or a multi-volume work). Similarly, line numbers should be preceded by “line” or “lines” unless a number indicating a “book” or other subdivisions comes before them (e.g. Amorosa Visione 5.28-30). References to footnotes should be given as “p. 123, n. 1.”


Use arabic numerals for volume, part, and section numbers of journals (when necessary) etc. Use a slash instead of a period to refer specifically to a part of a journal or other printed works: Spicilegium 10/2. Use roman numerals when the original work uses them for page numbers, when it is customary to use them in reference to a book or a section of a longer work (e.g. The Canterbury Tales, V. 120-22), and when a library uses them for manuscript shelf marks in its collection.
Within sentences, cardinal and ordinal numbers up to one hundred should normally be written in words (e.g. twenty-four knights) when the context is not statistical, but arabic numerals should be used for volume, part, chapter, and page numbers, as well as for years and dates.


The customary English form of place-names should be used (e. g. “Rome,” “Munich,” “Vienna,” not “Roma,” “München,” “Wien”) in both text and notes. If a book is published by the same publisher in more than one location, it is usually sufficient to give only the first location in the list. Use US postal-code abbreviations for states (AK, AL, etc.) and “UK” for any of the regions of the United Kingdom to disambiguate cities of the same name in the United States and the United Kingdom, most notably Cambridge, MA and Cambridge, UK.

Short form for subsequent references in footnotes:

If the author makes reference to the same material several times, subsequent references can be made in the shorter form. The most common short form consists of the last name of the (first) author (and “et al.” or “and others”) and the short title of the work cited containing the key word or words from the main title. The initial “A” or “The” should be omitted. The order of the words should not be changed.

Scholarly reference terms:

Abbreviations such as “et al.,” “ibid.,” “e.g.,” “i.e.,” and “c.” (circa) should not be italicized except “[sic].” The use of the abbreviation “ibid.” is permissible only when it refers to the same work cited in the same note or in the note immediately preceding. It must never be used if the preceding note contains more than one citation. If the entire reference, including page numbers or other particulars, is identical, the word “ibid.” alone is used. “Op. cit.” (“in the work cited”) and “loc. cit.” (“in the place cited”) should not be used; use the short-title form instead.


When citing a URL, the original form of the address should be given in full, but without query strings (a question mark with ID numbers) if it works without these. A URL should always be accompanied by a date of access in square brackets (e.g. [accessed 15 January 2016]).


1. Primary sources

< First references >
Nithard, Histoire des fils de Louis le Pieux 2.6, ed. and tr. Philippe Lauer, rev. Sophie Glansdorff, Les Classiques de l'Histoire au Moyen Âge 51 (Paris, 2012), pp. 64-68.
Giovanni Boccaccio, Amorosa Visione 5.28-30, trans. Robert Hollander, Timothy Hampton, and Martherita Frankel, Amorosa Visione (Hanover, NH, 1986), p.23.
Walahfrid Strabo, Visio Wettini, lines 206-13, ed. and trans. Hermann Knittel, 2nd ed., Reichenauer Texte und Bilder 12 (Heidelberg, 2004), p. 78.
Marie de France, Guigemar, lines 167–69, ed. Jean Rychner, Les Lais de Marie de France, Les Classiques Français du Moyen Âge 93 (Paris, 1966; repr. 1978), p. 10.

< Subsequent references >
Histoire des fils de Louis 1.1, p. 4.
Amorosa Visione 14.7-12, p.58.
Visio Wettini, lines 263–67, pp. 81-82.
Guigemar, lines 76–122, pp. 7-9.

< Biblical citations >
Josh. 1.17; 1 Tim. 5.21.

Note: Series and collections of primary sources

The following abbreviations can be used without explanation: CCCM and CCSL (Corpus Christianorum, Continuatio Mediaeualis and Series Latina), EETS OS/ES/SS (Early English Text Society, Original Series/ Extra Series/ Supplementary Series), MGH (Monumenta Germaniae Historica; see http://www.mgh.de/dmgh/linking/kuerzel/ for sections of the MGH), and PL and PG (Migne’s Patrologia Latina and Graeca). The names of other collections and series should be given in full when first cited.
PL 125:833.
MGH SS 13:20. [Scriptores, volume 13, page 20.]
MGH Capit. episc. 3:33-34 [Leges, Capitula episcoporum, volume 3, page 33-34.]

Walahfrid Strabo, Vita sancti Galli confessoris, ed. Bruno Krusch, MGH SS rer. Merov. 4 (Hannover, 1902), pp. 280-337. A Late Fifteenth-Century Dominical Sermon Cycle Edited from Bodleian Library MS E Musaeo 180 and Other Manuscripts, ed. Stephen Morrison, 2 vols., EETS OS 337, 338 (Oxford, 2012 for 2011), 2:58-60. Giovanni Boccaccio,_Il Filocolo, trans. Donald Cheney, Garland Library of Medieval Literature, Series B 43 (New York, 1985)

Note: Manuscripts and archival material

Cite the shelf mark according to the practice of the given library. Folio numbers should include a recto/verso reference, abbreviated (“r” and “v”) and written on the line, not as a superscript. The abbreviation of “folio” is “fol.” (plural “fols.”).

London, British Library, MS Cotton Nero. A. x, fol. 15r.
Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, MS lat. 4613, fols. 1r–13r.
Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, MS Vat. lat. 4982, fol. 71r–v. [Do not use the plural form for inclusive references within a single folio.]
Zürich, Kantonsbibliothek, C I, fol. 6v.

BnF lat. 4613, fol. 13r.
Vat. lat. 4982, fols. 69v-71r.

Verona, Archivio di Stato, S. Maria in Organo, App. n. 3.
St. Gallen, Stiftsarchiv, I.8.

Note: Audiovisual material

Facts of publication should be given in the style for print media. Note that the name of the conductor or performer, if the focus on the recording is more relevant to the discussion than that of the composer, may be listed first. Ⓟ and Ⓒ mean “published” and “copyrighted” respectively.

Composer, Title of the work, vol. 1, orchestra and chorus dir. Conductor, Ⓟ and © Year, Label and serial number.

2. Secondary sources   Books

< Standard first citations >
Mary Carruthers, The Book of Memory: A Study of Memory in Medieval Culture Cambridge Studies in Medieval Culture, 10 (Cambridge, UK, 1990), pp. 110–21.
H. C. Lea, A History of Auricular Confession and Indulgences in the Latin Church, 3 vols. (London, 1896; repr. 1968), 3:65. [a reprint of a work in multiple volumes; the citation is to volume 3, page 65.]
Mario Praz, Bellezza e bizzarria: saggi scelti, ed. Andrea Cane, 3rd ed. (Milan, 2009) [a later edition of an edited work]

< Subsequent references >
Carruthers, The Book of Memory, p. 102.


The standard abbreviations for journals and series titles can be used sparingly at the discretion of authors, but do not abbreviate journal titles in the first reference, unless an abbreviation has become the main title of the journal. First and last page numbers of the item should be given at the first citation, followed, when necessary, by the page number(s) pertaining to the cited passage in parenthesis and preceded by “p.” or “pp.”

< Standard first citation >
Hiroshi Takayama, “Frederick II’s Crusade: An Example of Christian-Muslim Diplomacy,” Mediterranean Historical Review 25 (2010): 169-85 (p. 173).
Roger S. Wieck, “The Hours of Catherine of Cleves: the Manuscript That Changed the World,” in Books of Hours Reconsidered, ed. Sandra Hindman and James H. Marrow (Turnhout, 2013), pp. 51-61 (p. 55).

< Subsequent references >
Takayama, “Frederick II’s Crusade,” p. 170.
Wieck, “The Hours of Catherine of Cleves,” p. 58.

Note: Non-English titles

Follow the standard rules for the given language in the capitalization of non-English titles. Titles in non-Roman alphabets are to be transliterated as well. Titles in languages other than classical and medieval Latin and Greek, French, Italian, German, and Spanish may be accompanied with translation in English. The translation immediately follows the title in square brackets and in roman type; only the first word and proper nouns and adjectives are capitalized.